Unedited party responses: Conservatives, NDP, Green and Liberal


Conservatives

How does your party plan to improve Canadian hospice services, which are currently not consistently available throughout Canada, and as a result limit usable access?

While the administration and delivery of healthcare services remains within the jurisdiction of the provinces and territories, our Conservative Government has introduced numerous initiatives to better meet the healthcare needs of Canadians.

Our most recent Economic Action Plan, for 2015, took action to improve available hospice care in Canada by an investment of up to an additional $37 million annually to extend the duration of compassionate care benefits from the current six weeks to six months, as of January 2016. Through this enhancement, the Government is ensuring that the EI program continues to help Canadians when they need it most. Compassionate care benefits, provided through the Employment Insurance program, are available to individuals temporarily away from work to care for a sick family member with a significant risk of death. The benefits can also be taken within an expanded period of 52 weeks (up from 26 weeks) and can be shared between family members.

Another measure includes the investment of more than $43 million in palliative care research through the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, between 2006 and 2013. Economic Action Plans 2011 and 2013 also committed $3 million to the Canadian Hospice Palliative Care Association for the development of community-integrated palliative care models and $3 million to the Pallium Foundation of Canada for palliative care training to front-line healthcare providers, respectively.

These initiatives as part of our Economic Action Plan reaffirm our Party’s commitment to Canadians receive the hospice care and support they need.

 Statistics Canada reports show the rate of poverty among Canadian seniors has been climbing through the years. How does your party plan to address this issue if elected?

Our Conservative Government is committed to enhancing the well-being of Canada’s seniors during the retirements they have earned. To alleviate the financial burden that seniors face, our Party has:

  • introduced tax relief measures specifically for seniors such as twice increasing the Age Credit, and increasing GIS benefits for recipients who choose to work
  • doubled the Pension Income Credit, to $2,000
  • taken over 380,000 seniors off of the tax rolls altogether
  • expanded the Targeted Initiative for Older Workers by investing $75 million to help unemployed older workers put their talents and experience back to work

In government, we increased the GIS earnings exemption from $500 to $3,500, meaning that a GIS recipient with employment income is now able to keep more of his or her hard-earned money without any reduction in GIS benefits. A single pensioner earning $3,500 or more can keep an additional $1,500 in annual GIS benefits.  Nearly 100,000 low-income seniors benefit from this measure.

In 2011, we took concrete action further improving the financial security and well-being of more than 680,000 seniors across Canada by enhancing the GIS for the lowest-income seniors in the greatest need. Eligible seniors with little or no income other than Old Age Security and the GIS now receive additional benefits. This was the largest increase to the GIS for the lowest-income seniors in 25 years, representing an investment of more than $300 million per year.

High pharmaceutical costs have a great impact on the senior population in Canada who are already living at, or near poverty. What measures will your party take to help eliminate the rising prices?

While the provinces and territories are responsible for decisions on which drugs are covered, our Party recognizes the problems that high pharmaceutical costs create for Canadians. We recognize that before spending more money, we need to look at making better use of existing dollars. Bulk drug purchasing plans are one way to do this. They are the most effective, common sense method to improve both access and value. This National Drug Purchasing Plan that focuses on bulk purchasing is one innovative solution to address this issue, and we will continue to work with provinces and territories developing innovative solutions to tackle issues like these affecting our healthcare system.

What are your party’s plans to help support better geriatric services and ensure more specialty spaces for geriatricians within hospitals?

We will continue to work with the provinces to look at innovation in healthcare and how the federal government can support efforts to improve the delivery of high-quality healthcare at an affordable and sustainable cost to Canadians. In fact, our Minister of Health created the Advisory Panel on Healthcare Innovation in June 2014 to do just that.

Our most recent Economic Action Plan 2015 proposed to provide funding to support health system innovation and research to address specific health issues affecting many Canadians and their families, particularly mental health. As Canada’s population ages, age-related cognitive impairment and chronic conditions are becoming more prevalent; the burden on families is vast and continues to grow. Research on aging and brain health issues such as dementia can lead to better diagnostic tools and more effective treatments that improve Canadians’ quality of life.

In order to support these goals, we have taken action that includes, for example, the Economic Action Plan 2015 proposal to provide up to $42 million over five years, starting in 2015–16, to Baycrest Health Sciences, to support the establishment of the Canadian Centre for Aging and Brain Health Innovation.

Ultimately, by providing the provinces with long-term, predictable, and record level funding, we are ensuring that they have the resources they need to ensure that seniors and the elderly are receiving the care that they require, and that our healthcare institutions are equipped to meet their needs.

The Canadian Health Accord expired on March 31, 2014, a programme that allowed for universal and comprehensive health care coverage without discrimination. What changes would you like to see in this programme, and would your party take measures to ensure a new Health Accord?

The Canada Health Act is the legislation governing Canada’s healthcare system, and guarantees the principles of: universality; comprehensiveness; portability; accessibility; and, public administration. In Government we have continued to adhere to the principles of the Act. The administration and delivery of healthcare services remains constitutionally within the jurisdiction of the provinces.

Healthcare funding from the federal government is provided to the provinces through the Canada Health Transfer (CHT), the largest major transfer to provinces and territories.  It provides long-term predictable funding for health care. CHT transfer payments are made on an equal per capita basis.

  • As announced in December 2011, total CHT cash levels are set in legislation to grow at 6 per cent until 2016-17.
  • Starting in 2017-18, total CHT cash will grow in line with a three-year moving average of nominal Gross Domestic Product, with funding guaranteed to increase by at least 3 per cent per year.

In 2006-07, when our Government first took office, the CHT was $20.1 billion dollars. Now, under our Government the CHT is expected to reach at least $38 billion in 2018-19.

If your party is elected, how will they be addressing the escalating cost of dementia, and in what ways will they work at providing adequate care for those who need it?

Anyone who has seen a loved one suffer from dementia knows what a profound impact it has on an individual. We know that families and caregivers carry a burden as well.

The Government continues to show leadership at national and international levels with the ambition of finding a cure to dementia by 2025. Our recent support for addressing the issue of dementia and Canadians with Alzheimer’s disease includes announcing in Economic Action Plan 2014 the creation of the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA). The CCNA has brought together some of the brightest minds in Canadian research to make a difference in the quality of life and treatment for those suffering from neurodegenerative diseases.

We also have launched the National Dementia Research and Prevention Plan to continue the momentum on making vital discoveries to improve the standards of care and reduce the burden on families caring for a loved one suffering from dementia. The Plan outlines the Government of Canada’s investments, partnerships and key initiatives related to dementia research and prevention.

Another strategy has been working with the Alzheimer Society of Canada to bring Dementia Friends, a community-based program successfully implemented in Japan and the United Kingdom to make daily life better for those living with dementia, to Canada this year. Dementia Friends will help Canadians become better informed about how they can support people living with dementia in their communities.

We’ve released Mapping Connections: An Understanding of Neurological Conditions in Canada, which presents the findings from the most comprehensive study of neurological conditions ever to be conducted in Canada. The National Population Health Study of Neurological Conditions is a four-year, $15 million undertaking led by the Public Health Agency of Canada in partnership with Neurological Health Charities of Canada, a collaborative of 24 charities representing individuals and families impacted by neurological conditions across the country.

We are committed to continuing to work with provincial and territorial Health Ministers and stakeholders to develop a national dementia plan. As a first step, Ministers will bring research and best practices together and present them at the next Health Ministers Meeting.

How will your party be helping to solve the problem of long wait times in emergency rooms, and over-crowding of hospitals?

Again, while healthcare is within the jurisdiction of the Canadian provinces, I am proud of the leadership our Government has been able to show in providing long-term predictable funding for the provincial healthcare budget. However, we have also been specifically invested in alleviating the burden on communities suffering from shortages in the healthcare field that are contributing to issues of increased wait times. By increasing the number of available healthcare practitioners, we can address these issues.

One program that has been implemented to address this shortage is the Internationally Educated Health Professionals Initiative. This program is focused on improving the integration of immigrants and internationally trained Canadians into the workforce. In a related initiative, our government has also invested in the Foreign Credential Recognition Program to streamline the process for recognition of internationally trained professionals in the healthcare sector among others.

In order to address the issue of such shortages in rural and remote communities, our Conservative Government introduced measures to attract recent graduates in the medical field to these areas. Family doctors and family medical residents in training, as well as nurse practitioners and nurses are eligible for federal Canada Student Loan forgiveness if they have been employed for 12 months in a designated rural or remote community.

In addition, an increasing number of nurse practitioners (NPs) are taking on the role of primary care giver, providing Canadians with additional healthcare options. To facilitate this trend, our Conservative Government recently published new regulations providing for more prescribing authority for NPs, midwives, and podiatrists. The new regulations will allow NPs to prescribe controlled substances under the federal Controlled Drug and Substances Act, which will enable them to provide more timely and comprehensive care to patients.

I am proud of our record of collaborating with the provinces in addressing the issue of shortages in the healthcare field.

 In what ways will your party help provide easier access to transitional housing for seniors, and help eliminate long waitlists within senior care facilities?

While in government, we have been committed to ensuring access to quality affordable housing. Significant federal investments in affordable housing and strong oversight of Canada’s housing system have led to Canada being recognized as a country with one of the best housing systems in the world.

We have worked to retain that status with a number of investments. For example, Economic Action Plan 2013 built on this record by $253M per year over 5 years (more than $1.25B in total) to renew the Investment in Affordable Housing. Under this initiative, provinces match federal investments and design and deliver programs that improve access to housing.

We also understand the importance of helping seniors age in place. In addition to the financial support outlined above, recent Government of Canada investments in affordable and social housing, age-friendly communities, and support for caregivers are helping seniors stay in their own homes and remain physically and socially active. This includes measures like the Economic Action Plan 2015 introduction of a new Home Accessibility Tax Credit for seniors and persons with disabilities to facilitate healthy and accessible homes, which promote mobility and functionality within.

Here in Kamloops-Thompson-Cariboo we have had a number of significant investments in housing for seniors. This includes a major federal contribution to the construction of 322 modular housing units for seniors and persons with disabilities in 2010, and almost $1 million in local New Horizons for Seniors grants, which supports projects led or inspired by seniors, including support for seniors’ facilities.

Through these targeted investments our Government will continue to work with provincial and territorial governments, municipalities, and other stakeholders at the community level to ensure the accessibility and sustainability of housing, including social housing, for those in need, including seniors.


NDP

Thank you very much for your questions on our party’s positions.  While our platform has not yet been officially released, the NDP has long indicated our position on many of these issues.  Please feel free to refer to our announcements in the platform once it is released for more specific details in each of these areas.

How does your party plan to improve Canadian hospice services, which are currently not consistently available throughout Canada, and as a result limit usable access?

NDP Response: Palliative care is an important pillar in the NDP’s continuing care plan and a New Democratic government will make improving access to palliative care a priority. The need for palliative care impacts on all Canadians and meeting that need should depend neither on the supports an individual can rally for themselves, nor where in the country they happen to live.

An NDP government will breathe new life into federal-provincial-territorial collaboration and provide the much-needed federal leadership in public health care abandoned by Stephen Harper. Nothing exemplifies this abandonment more than Mr. Harper’s disbanding of the Secretariat on Palliative and End-of-Life Care in 2007 – the focal point and facilitator of collaborative action nationally – and closing down work on the national palliative and end-of-life care strategy.

We will move quickly to initiate a new national Health Accord with provinces and territories. These important negotiations will set the course of public health care over the coming years and will include strategy discussions aimed to improve palliative care.

Statistics Canada reports show the rate of poverty among Canadian seniors has been climbing through the years. How does your party plan to address this issue if elected?

NDP Response: The NDP has a longstanding commitment to a federal poverty reduction strategy. We are the only party to have proposed legislation to create such a strategy – legislation that was developed in consultation with low income Canadians and anti-poverty groups.  We will make important federal investments to reduce poverty, including an increase to the GIS to help lift more seniors out of poverty.   

The NDP is the only party to already have a national food strategy, developed in consultation with a broad range of groups. It is based on the following pillars: sustainable agricultural communities; supporting local agriculture; growing agricultural businesses to drive our national economy; safe, transparent, and healthy food choices, and ensuring that every Canadian can afford a healthy meal.

An NDP government lead by Tom Mulcair will invest over $2.7 billion over 4 years for affordable housing and homelessness programs in Canada. This will include an increase to the Homelessness Partnering Strategy, as well as indexing the funding to inflation. We will continue to support the proven approach of Housing First, while also ensuring that the full range of services necessary for support and prevention are also eligible for funding. By increasing the stock of affordable housing and placing emphasis within our affordable housing strategy on vulnerable populations, we also hope to reduce the number of Canadians who are at risk of becoming homeless.

High pharmaceutical costs have a great impact on the senior population in Canada who are already living at, or near poverty. What measures will your party take to help eliminate the rising prices?

NDP Response:  Instead of working with provinces to improve our healthcare system, Stephen Harper imposed billions in unilateral cuts, leaving provinces and territories to shoulder 80% of health care costs.  An NDP government lead by Tom Mulcair will stop these cuts and get back to working collaboratively with provinces and territories. One of the NDP’s top priorities will be improving prescription drug coverage to help make medications more affordable for Canadians.

What are your party’s plans to help support better geriatric services and ensure more specialty spaces for geriatricians within hospitals?

NDP Response: Tommy Douglas’ NDP pioneered public health care in Canada, and New Democrats are determined to defend it. Unfortunately demands on our healthcare system have increased and significant gaps remain. Experts tell us that making health care better takes a national approach.  Yet our government has backed away from its leadership role in health care.  An NDP government lead by Tom Mulcair will stop Mr. Harper’s unilateral cuts and get back to working collaboratively with the provinces and territories. Respecting provincial roles, we will take the lead on developing strategies to improve public health care for seniors and make it more sustainable over the long term.

The Canadian Health Accord expired on March 31, 2014, a programme that allowed for universal and comprehensive health care coverage without discrimination. What changes would you like to see in this programme, and would your party take measures to ensure a new Health Accord?

NDP Response: After a decade without federal leadership from the Conservative government, home care and other vital 21st century health care elements have stalled. A New Democratic government will restore the federal leadership role in health care that has been lacking under the Conservatives.  New Democrats have committed to end the Conservatives’ reckless,

unilateral cuts to health care funding and to work collaboratively with the provinces and territories on developing a new set of health care agreements. A new era of cooperation under an NDP government will enable Canadians to see movement towards the improvements they’ve sought to elements like home care, palliative care and drug affordability – improvements that have been stifled by the vacuum of leadership under the Harper Conservatives.

If your party is elected, how will they be addressing the escalating cost of dementia, and in what ways will they work at providing adequate care for those who need it?

NDP Response: Last year, the NDP launched our National Strategy on Aging, which calls on the government to address the health needs of seniors, including addressing dementia care. NDP MP Claude Gravelle tabled Bill C-356, which will create a National Dementia Strategy—supporting the Alzheimer Society’s call for a national approach that will help more people with the disease and their caregivers across Canada. That bill was regrettably defeated by the Harper majority in Parliament.

How will your party be helping to solve the problem of long wait times in emergency rooms, and over-crowding of hospitals? 

NDP Response: 15% of Canadians still don’t have access to the services of a family physician, leaving a significant gap at the primary care level. The timeliness of access to care also remains a problem. For example, a 2014 Commonwealth Fund survey of 11 comparable health systems found that Canada ranked last in seniors’ same or next-day access to a doctor or nurse but first when it came to emergency room use. Canadians are ending up in emergency rooms for cases that could have been treated by a family health care provider.

But, like a national pharmaceutical strategy, the pan-Canadian electronic record initiative, or integrated home care services, the missing piece holding back these much-needed innovations has been federal government leadership under Stephen Harper’s government. The 2004 Health Accords, finally killed outright by the Harper government, presented a vehicle whereby all levels of government could collaborate in making needed changes. Yet, limited as its common goals were, progress was repeatedly stifled by a missing-in-action Harper government.

An New Democratic government will breathe life back into these important initiatives through a renewed collaborative approach to federal-provincial-territorial relations with visionary federal leadership. We will initiate discussions toward a new health accord and we have already pledged to reverse Harper’s cuts to health transfers that would suck billions of federal dollars out of our future health services.

New Democrats have been supportive of hub models such as community health centres and will consult health providers on others. Such teams will bolster prevention strategies to better health outcomes – such as immunizations – and health budgets alike.

In what ways will your party help provide easier access to transitional housing for seniors, and help eliminate long waitlists within senior care facilities?

NDP Response: Seniors are very clear on what they want their retirement years to look like.   We’ve heard from seniors that remaining in their own homes and communities is a priority for them. That’s why it’s vitally important that seniors get the supports they need to remain in their own homes. New Democrats are committed to improving our health care system and making it more sustainable over the long term.  Our top priorities include improved access to primary, long-term and home care, and measures to prevent long-term illnesses that affect millions of Canadians.


 

Green

How does your party plan to improve Canadian hospice services, which are currently not consistently available throughout Canada, and as a result limit usable access?

Green MPs would work to establish and fund a special program to provide grants to non-profit societies setting up palliative care hospices, while increasing funding to existing hospice services.  We would also work to educate Canadians about end-of-life issues and enact ‘living-will’ legislation that guarantees people the right to limit or refuse medical intervention and treatment so people can make the choice of dying with dignity.

Note that more details on all of these answers can be found on the web in our Vision Green document athttp://www.greenparty.ca/vision-green in Part 4: People.  See especially 4.4: Seniors; 4.5: Living and Dying with Dignity; 4.7: Healthier People, Healthier Health-Care; 4.10.2: Disabilities; 4.12: Eliminating Poverty; and 4.15: Veterans.

Statistics Canada reports show the rate of poverty among Canadian seniors has been climbing through the years. How does your party plan to address this issue if elected?

The Green Party proposes a Guaranteed Livable Income funded in large part by the Carbon Fee-and-Dividend to replace much of the complicated patchwork of income-supports available to qualifying seniors. Instead the GLI would be a single simple monthly income available to all, supplementing existing pensions and ensuring no Canadian lives in poverty.

Collectively across all levels of government, Canada currently spends $185 billion per year on a wide range of income support programs and transfers including welfare, OAS, GIS, disability, baby bonuses, EI, and many more.  We could instead spend just $40 billion per year and provide far more generous benefits at the same time just by collapsing all of those bureaucracies into a single cheque mailed out to everyone and then taxed back from those who don’t need it anymore, eliminating all the stigma and hassle (and expense) of administering and policing who qualifies and who doesn’t at any given moment.  Of course there are multiple jurisdictions to negotiate the details with, but it seems hard to imagine that many provinces would turn their noses up at a federal government offering to save them nearly 80% of their annual income assistance budgets.

In the meantime we would ensure all seniors who qualify are made aware of available federal income supplements and instructed on how to apply for them, and work to enhance CPP by phasing in the doubling of the target income replacement rate from 25% to 50% of working income.

High pharmaceutical costs have a great impact on the senior population in Canada who are already living at, or near poverty. What measures will your party take to help eliminate the rising prices?

The Green Party’s first major policy announcement of the election campaign was to call for a national Pharmacare program so that all seniors (and all citizens generally!) can afford to fill their prescriptions.  While Canadians collectively spend $11 billion a year on prescription medications, finally including Pharmacare in Medicare would cost us a total of just $1 billion a year through bulk-purchasing and other efficiencies of scale.  The measures outlined in the last question would also be a great help.

What are your party’s plans to help support better geriatric services and ensure more specialty spaces for geriatricians within hospitals?

Green MPs would help develop national guidelines for care of the frail elderly who have special needs requiring geriatric expertise.  See also the question about wait times and overcrowding.

If your party is elected, how will they be addressing the escalating cost of dementia, and in what ways will they work at providing adequate care for those who need it?

An astonishing 13 million Canadians already provide some kind of home-based care for their own family members or friends with long-term illnesses including dementia.  The Green Party is so far the only party calling for the creation of a National Dementia Strategy, which includes more long-term care beds in neighborhood facilities and improved supports for family members.

How will your party be helping to solve the problem of long wait times in emergency rooms, and over-crowding of hospitals?

The Green Party devotes a full 12 pages of its Vision Green platform to measures relating to saving and strengthening Medicare.  From p.102, Green MPs would:

1) Address the cost crisis that produces long waitlists by providing more money to hire staff to open currently closed beds, fully utilize existing operating rooms in hospitals, and purchase new diagnostic equipment;

2) Provide funds immediately to begin training more doctors and nurses;

3) Work with the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) to immediately establish qualification standards and on-the-job mentorship programs to fast-track certification of foreign trained health care professionals;

4) Provide student loan forgiveness incentives for graduating doctors, nurses, paramedics, and other health care professionals who agree to staff rural facilities and family practice clinics where recruitment is currently a problem;

5) Provide funds to expand provincial health insurance to cover proven alternative therapies that are less expensive and invasive;

6) Improve access to midwifery services across Canada;

7) Focus resources on recovery beds to move patients to community-centered, lower cost recovery and post-op beds, relying on a decreased patient to nurse ratio, freeing up beds for those needing surgeries.

In what ways will your party help provide easier access to transitional housing for seniors, and help eliminate long waitlists within senior care facilities?

The Green Party would support a national “Aging in Place” approach to ensure every Canadian can live in their own home and community safely and comfortably, enshrining a policy that seniors’ care must be provided in the communities where they or their families live.  We would expand home support and home care programs and assisted-living services to support people with chronic care needs, including the many seniors who wish to stay in their own homes and communities, while transferring funds to provinces to build and open more long-term care beds.  We would also establish a National Housing Plan with affordable and predictable home care, providing access to home equity to support day-to-day living expenses

The Canadian Health Accord expired on March 31, 2014, a programme that allowed for universal and comprehensive health care coverage without discrimination. What changes would you like to see in this programme, and would your party take measures to ensure a new Health Accord?

The very last provisions of the old Health Accord will expire at the end of 2015, namely the guaranteed 6% increase in annual health-funding, after which the new formula which the Harper Government simply imposed upon the provinces without negotiation will take effect.  This new formula ties increases in health care funding to growth in the GDP with a “floor” of 3% per year, meaning that whenever the economy grows very slowly or falls into recession and more Canadians find themselves in need of health care, the system will actually be given LESS money to cope.  For reference, since 2000 Canada’s economy has never grown more than 3.37% per year, and only 3 of the last 15 (or 1 of the last 9) have even broken 3%.  If the economy continues to grow at 3% or less for the 10 year duration of this new formula, that means an effective cut totalling $36 billion to Canada’s health system compared to the old Health Accord.  This will be catastrophic.

Green MPs would begin by extending the old Health Accord for the time being, then launch into immediate negotiations with the provinces for a new agreement that would include weighting the Canada Health Transfer to account for the age of a province’s population, since it is a simple fact of life that extra senior-care costs provincial health systems far more than younger populations.


 

Liberal 

 Many of your questions relate to our health care system, which has once again become an election issue due to the changes introduced in the past few years. The Conservatives allowed the previous health accord to lapse a year ago and they imposed a unilateral health plan without consultation with the provinces and territories – the ones who actually deliver the health care services. The 2004 Health Accord was a negotiated agreement that focused on equitable funding and a common set of standards and goals for across Canada. The Conservative’s Canada health Transfer plan has seriously compromised our health care system in a number of ways.

The funding is directed to provinces without being tied to a set of common standards and best practices, and it has been changed to a straight per capita cash transfer, which fails to account for variability in factors such as own-source tax revenues, population growth, age demographics, and the rural/urban mix. As a result, provinces with a higher per capita seniors population and greater health costs receive the same funding as those with lower rates. These conditions will serve to erode the universality of health care in Canada and it puts portability between provinces and territories at risk. The result could be 13 different health care models, each with different goals, expectations, and ability to fund programs.

As well, the Conservatives eliminated funding for the Health Council of Canada, an independent body responsible for monitoring and reporting on issues related to health care delivery and funding, including reports on best practices and innovations in the field. Refusing to collaborate and plan with provincial partners and reducing the roles of evidence-based advisory groups is typical of this government`s approach to many issues.

The Conservative government`s funding formula will actually result in decreased spending in health care over the term – an estimated $36 billion according to a report by the provincial finance ministers. The federal government`s share of health care funding has gradually decreased from 50% to 20%, with a prediction that it will fall to 12% in future years. This will further erode a system that is already facing increased service demands as a result of our aging population.

Health care professionals have called for the federal government to once again become the guardians of national medicare, and to collaboratively negotiate an agreement that will be more reflective of the needs and concerns of Canadians. The Liberals have pledged to once again negotiate with the provinces and territories to create a bi-lateral plan for health care that addresses needs in a reasoned and relevant way. This will include planning for increased rates of dementia by ensuring that the building of treatment and care facilities is increased and developing a universal pharmacare program.

The federal government must restore its leadership role in preserving universal health care, not simply by handing off responsibility to the provinces.

Steve Powrie

Liberal Candidate